"Ural" cars - equipment for various industries, agriculture, law enforcement agencies.
On November 30, 1941, the State Defense Committee decided to build the Miass Motor Plant. The enterprise was supposed to start production of automobile engines and tank gearboxes as soon as possible. The production base was the evacuated workshops of the Moscow plant. Stalin.
On February 14, 1943, by order No. 64 of the People's Commissariat of Medium Machine Building, the Ural Automobile Plant was transformed into the State Union Ural Automobile Plant named after Stalin (UralZiS). Work on mastering the production of cars according to the documentation of the Moscow ZiS began in Miass. The car plant was preparing to produce ZiS-5 trucks.
On May 27, 1944, the main conveyor was prepared for delivery, and on July 8, 1944, the first car came out of the gates of the plant - the ZiS-5V car, a military modification of the ZiS-5. The ZiS-5V car was a simplified version of the pre-war 2-axle four-wheel drive (4x2) ZiS-5. The advantage of the ZiS-5V produced by UralZiS was that, unlike the Moscow ZiS, the Miass truck was equipped with an increased power ZiS-5M engine. This made it possible to accelerate 35% faster, and the fuel economy reached 10-16%.
In parallel with the development of the design of cars running on gasoline engines, the automobile plant immediately after the war began to develop and produce gas-fired trucks. By the decision of the People's Commissariat of Medium Machine Building, the Ural Automobile Plant in November 1946 was designated "the leading plant for the production of gas generator vehicles based on the ZiS-5".
Initially, the production of the Moscow model of the ZiS-21A gas generator was mastered. Such a car literally ran on wood: wooden chocks were used to obtain gas. Specially for testing gas-fired engines and gas-generating vehicles, the plant designed and built shaft-vertical drying ovens. The ovens produced up to 20 cubic meters of dry chocks per day. The possibility of using solid fuels had to pay with losses in a number of vehicle characteristics. Carrying capacity dropped to 2.5 tons. With a 45 hp engine the cars developed speeds up to 48 km / h.
In October 1951, the ZiS-21A was replaced by the UralZiS-352. The UralZiS-352 gas generator unit allowed the power unit to operate on wooden chocks of high humidity. The truck was produced on the basis of the "ZiS-5M" standing on the conveyor, and later on the "UralZiS-355". The UralZiS-352 was significantly different from the ZiS-21A: the gas generator was significantly improved, its strength and service life were increased, and the curb weight decreased by 98 kg.
The UralZiS-352 car was the last serial model with a gas generator power unit in the Soviet automotive industry. But experimental work continued later. Already on the basis of "UralZiS-355M" prototypes of, probably, the last "gazgens" in the world - "UralZiS-354" and "UralZiS-356" were developed and manufactured. But these cars and their units were no longer mastered by production, although they underwent a full range of tests, and in July 1955 "UralZiS-356" was approved by the board of the Ministry of the Automotive Industry for production.
Since 1961, the Ural-3757 was produced, since 1964 - the Ural-375D and -375N with the ZIL-375 carburetor engine.
In 2001, as a result of the restructuring of the UralAZ production complex, the Ural automobile plant was formed, which is the successor to its history and traditions. The new enterprise became part of the Russian holding "RusPromAuto". Currently, the Ural Automobile Plant occupies a leading position among the manufacturers of 4x4, 6x6, 8x8 all-wheel drive trucks.
The main distinguishing feature of the Ural family cars is their high cross-country ability. The ability to drive off-road is provided by a powerful engine, a special design of driving axles, a centralized tire air regulation system and other design features. Miass trucks operate at ambient temperatures from -50 to +50 C, they are maintainable and designed for garage-free storage.
Along with the classic Ural-4320 and Ural-5557 models, more than 300 other models and modifications are offered. On the basis of the chassis of "Ural" vehicles, 180 samples of special equipment are mounted: shift buses, cranes, tank trucks, fuel trucks, fire trucks, repair shops, various units for the oil and gas and timber industry, mining and utilities. The family of cars is unified in terms of units and components, which reduces the cost of production, maintenance and operation.
In 2001-2002, based on the design of the URAL serial cab, a number of works were carried out to improve the comfort of the increased cab. The so-called "one-and-a-half" cab has become 600 mm longer than the serial one, the folding passenger seats have been moved back relative to the driver's seat, making it possible to equip a place for rest and personal belongings of the driver. This greatly facilitates the work of drivers on long journeys. Six-seat 4-door cabins are also produced, which with an independent heater on a traditional chassis create comfortable conditions for the transportation of personnel. Installation of a high roof made of polymeric materials with molded upholstery on serial cabins (both short and long) allows to increase the heat and sound insulation properties of the cab. In 2003, the production of a modification of the cab manufactured by OJSC Iveko-UralAZ, equipped with a berth with installed sprung seats, a plastic instrument panel and an independent heater, began.
The URAL family of vehicles with 8x8 wheel arrangement includes the following vehicles:
URAL-532301 and URAL-532302 - flatbed vehicles with a carrying capacity of 10 tons with short and long cabins, designed for the transportation of various goods and for towing trailed systems on all types of roads and terrain with a gross train weight of up to 34 tons;
URAL-542301 and URAL-542302 are truck tractors for towing special semitrailers on all types of roads and terrain with a fifth wheel load of 10 tons, respectively, with short and long cabins. The main semi-trailer for these truck tractors is the multi-purpose chassis semi-trailer ChMZAP-93867 with a carrying capacity of 22.2 tons.
URAL-632302 and URAL-542362 are a flatbed vehicle and a truck tractor, respectively, with a carrying capacity and load on the fifth wheel coupling up to 14 tons for operation on all types of roads. The main semi-trailer for the URAL-542362 tractor is the ChMZAP-93853 semi-trailer. In this case, the total mass of the road train is 43.5 tons.
In 2002, the first commercial batch of 4-axle URAL-532303 vehicles was manufactured, the main difference from the base vehicle in the use of an armored, bulletproof cabin. The car was developed and manufactured by order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
In order to expand the presence of AZ "Ural" in the market of vehicles with a gross weight of up to 33.5 tons, preparations are underway for the production of a batch of a new heavy-duty dump truck URAL-63621 with a 6x6 wheel arrangement, developed on the basis of EuroTrakker vehicles. The vehicle is designed for road transportation of bulk and bulk cargo and is equipped with a heated platform with rear unloading. A prototype of this car was exhibited at the international automobile exhibition MIMS-2002.
For almost 70 years, UralAZ has been producing vehicles for a wide variety of operating conditions, including those for work in military conflicts. UralAZ trucks have repeatedly shown excellent results in battles in Afghanistan, Chechnya, and other republics of the North Caucasus. But they also proved to be excellent in other industries: agriculture, industry, including oil and gas, in the work of law enforcement agencies. The main trump cards of the Urals are undoubtedly high cross-country ability and the ability to work in an aggressive environment.
In recent years, the range of cars produced has been constantly expanding. The production of buses, flatbed vehicles, various truck tractors has been established. Completely new models of trucks for military use, with modern protective technologies, are on display.
Today UralAZ offers vehicles with wheel configurations 4 * 2, 6 * 4 and 8 * 4 and GVW 18-72 tons. It is based on a lightweight frame with excellent mechanical properties. The principle of building cars today is modular. The external and internal appearance of the cab has been seriously changed, the comfort of the cabin has been increased.
Few people know, but the Ural is also a brand of a domestic heavyweight motorcycle, which is now produced in the city of Irbit. If you are a motorcycle enthusiast, you probably often wondered about the motor repair of your iron horse. To be 100% sure, it is better to use the services of professionals.